By J. David Baxter

Electric Spacecraft Journal is published quarterly, and is an excellent source of information on alternative energy development, and breakthrough propulsion physics. The editor of Electric Space Journal, Charles Yost, was an invited participant at the August 1997, then NASA Lewis Research Center's Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop. Electric Spacecraft Journal emphasizes the independent researcher, especially those innovators who think outside the box. You can subscribe to Electric Spacecraft Journal, for $26 a year. All of their back issues are also available for $6.50 each. Write to Electric Spacecraft Journal, 322 Sunlight Drive, Leicester, North Carolina 28748. For Canada and Mexico the subscription rate is $30, $7.50 per back issue. For all other countries, it is $40 for a one year subscription, and $10 per back issue.

Electric Propulsion/Antigravity, D.L. Cravens, Electric Spacecraft Journal, Issue 13, published October 12, 1994, page 25.

Unified interconversion of fields, is determined by the size of the coupling constant. The Rynne article, same issue, suggests an electromagnetism-gravity coupling constant at 4 x 10 to the -15th kilograms per meter. This involves the self-energy of a charge, and modified Maxwell equations. The conservation of charge is related to inertial momentum. Length, time, mass, acceleration, charge and energy are all interrelated mathematically. Charge is independent of position, time and velocity, and it is quantified.

5D field equations, including mass density, and electrostatic potential, allows for inductive coupling between the electric and gravitational fields. The fundamental constant is particle dependent. It is different for electrons and protons. A difference between two potentials of different materials may give rise to far field gravitational potential. There is a similar role in coupling to a dielectric constant, and magnetic susceptibility. Charge conservation and electromagnetic effects create a gravitational mass-density. Divergence in the electrical current could give rise to inertial effects. Rotation can assist nuclear spin alignment, involved in gravitation.

Zinsser used pulses of electromagnetic waves of a specific shape and frequency. It was 2.5 nanoseconds at 40 MHz. The thrust from the Zinsser System, might be due to gravitational anisotropy around the matter.

Electric Field Propulsion Concepts From Independent Researchers, Charles A. Yost, 1997 NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop.

Pulsed electrostatic potential waves can be generated and transmitted in longitudinal form from the surface of electrodes. Intense non-linear polarizing waves extend into space, and surface charges occur on near by conductors. Pulsing, phasing, and directing electrostatic pulses, could result in reaction forces on surrounding objects, media, and space fields.

Phipps (1986, 1997), used Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics, as only a special case for more general equations published in 1892, by Heinrich Hertz. In Maxwell equations, a partial time derivative was taken, using a stationary detector. When a total time derivative is taken, in deriving equations of electrodynamics, allowing detector motion, the speed of light is no longer constant. There is no limit to spacecraft velocity.

Carroll (1997) determined that the velocity of light isn't limited to c in a gravitational field. Space exists solely by virtue of the mass and energy contained in an object, and its associated fields. He calculated that the energy density of space falls off as an inverse 4th power of the distance from matter. In less dense media, there is less resistance to acceleration.

Meson energy drives could achieve speeds 20 Million times faster than light.

T. T. Brown found linear thrust, when voltage was applied to suspended capacitors. Ion thrust, on light weight aircraft, may achieve orbit. A rotating disk design shows the most promise.

Longitudinal waves move in the same direction as its cause of disturbance. Variations can be caused by oscillating an object, or by sudden charge or discharge, such as that shown by small capacitors. Electrostatic fields are stronger when they are transmitted through a solid Wall. They are weaker when transmitted through air. Pulsing oscillating electrostatic field variations, has been proven, and could be used to provide propulsion, by means of a field around the craft.

Combined Antigravity Experiments, Martin Holwerda, Electric Spacecraft Journal, Issue 25, page 24, Published May 6, 1998.

Gravity can be decreased by annular rotation, or conduction. Gravity becomes charged with rotation. Weight loss is due to the relationship of speed relative to linear motion. High speed is required. The experiment is not effective, if it is done mechanically. Only clockwise rotation is effective. It absorbs gravity. Rotation must be horizontal, relative to the ground. Rotating magnets have a similar effect. Radius of disc is a factor. Large diameter or low curvature is required. Annular tube with a fast flow of particles, in rotation, is suggested. Gravity loss has been proven with hydrogen atoms. A coil of 250,000 windings can influence gravity. The gravity reduction is greatest at the center of rotation. Place a clock near the axis, and it changes time. When accelerating, gravity reduces even more.

Electromagnetic Propulsion Via A Vacuum-Interactance Push, by Blair M. Cleveland, Electric Spacecraft Journal, page 6, Published May 6, 1998.

The Lorentz Force equation, is missing a force term, which is proportional to the rate of change, in electromagnetic momentum density, carried by a poynting vector-flux (E x B). Abruptly pulsed crossed-field, that is non-radiating, is proposed to interact with the vacuum medium, creating an action-reaction push, which can be used for transportation.

E = electric field, B = magnetic field. A 1980, University of Toronto experiment, showed that a poynting vector for static fields, that causes motional force, is a fact. Electromagnetic fields contain mass and can store momentum, which can be used to generate inertial reaction forces. The use of separate electric and magnetic radio waves, are useful in this process. If used with a cavity-mode resonator, thrust is developed. It must be configured and pulsed.

The missing force term, in the Lorentz Force equation, involves the energy momentum stored in an electromagnetic field. Force always involves action and reaction. Mass in motion is momentum. The product of mass = mass x velocity. An impulse is created during a time interval. A net external force causes acceleration. Force x Time = the change in time x momentum.

More mass means more inertia. Inertia is a conserved quantity of momentum, based on mass. No momentum is gained or lost between two objects. Momentum exchange is involved in the Lorentz Force. This momentum is active, at a microscopic level, inside a current-carrying wire, to make an electric motor spin. Gravitational effects occur at large volumes.

Lorentz Force = change in momentum/time of rate change = unit electric charge x (velocity of object x magnetic field. Or F = dp/dt = qE + q(V +B). Electricity and motion creates magnetism. Motion and magnetism creates electricity. Velocity = E/B. Motional force is created if an electric field co-exists with a perpendicular magnetic field. If a charged particle moves too slowly in a transverse counterclockwise motion, as it crosses a field, a mostly electric coulomb force will divert it from its path. At the proper speed, it moves through the field unaffected.

E x B vectors can be used as a velocity filter, or a momentum selector. A charged particle will accelerate in a crossed field, if a uniform boost is given to the fields. This is a momentum booster. Electromagnetic momentum density is defined using poynting vector electromagnetic momentum density = momentum/volume.

An electrically charged capacitor weighs more, then when it is uncharged. Woodward measured several milligrams of difference.

A rotating electric wheel is lighter on its rim, then it is within the wheel itself. The inertia is controlled by the charge of the electrons. The Faeyman disc paradox, involves real energy momentum stored in the magnetic field, surrounding the charged plastic disk. Magnetic field and charges create angular momentum in the field. Turn off the power, and conservation of momentum flow, causes the wheel to rotate. To have a third law of motion Conserved in the Lorentz Force, it must include the electromagnetic mass of an electromagnetic field (a crossed field), and the vacuum medium.

Action Force = Unit electric charge of the electric field + unit electric charge x the velocity of the object x the magnetic field - change in time x the electric field x the magnetic field x the volume element. In math terms F = qE + q(V x B) - d/dt (E x B) x dV.

In the vacuum of space, in the absence of electric unit charges, the equation becomes an interaction between the electromagnetic mass of a crossed electromagnetic field, and the vacuum medium. F or F' = - d/dt (E x B) - dV. This makes possible a push via vacuum interactance. Electromagnetic low frequencies in matter was measured in Toronto. It was measured in a vacuum gap of a cylindrical capacitor.

Static fields are set-up in a non-vanishing poynting vector. A local reaction force acts on the charges, and currents, when the vacuum surrounding them is loaded with electromagnetic momentum. Removing dielectric and magnetic materials, but leaving a vacuum, reaction force is still detected in the vacuum.

To be useful, the fields can't radiate away from the source, but must interact near the source. It's like pushing from a wall. The vacuum has field energy. The energy of zero-point-energy involves extremely high frequencies, and they are random. The vacuum of space, throughout the Universe, has hidden momentum.

Electromagnetic induction is used to produce motion, rather than radiation. There is a change of local inertial impulse to charge momentum. This involves a thrust vector in one direction. The requirements include having a power source, a cross field device to create an intense thrust vector, and a high energy pulse modulation, with a fast rise time, circuit. Must have an impedance matching network to couple energy into the device. Also, a coupling of mechanical impulses to the body of the craft. For thrust, electric and magnetic fields must be separately stimulated, and combined in a volume of space. This can be antenna driven, using time varying electric fields, in a poynting vector . Faraday's Law curl E = dB/dt. Maxwell's Law B = dE/dt.

A parallel plate capacitor produces a magnetic field, when plate voltage is charging, due to displaced current. Large circular capacitor plates are supplied with high voltage, creating circular magnetic fields, with a volume enclosed by their plate. Sharp pulses will extend magnetic fields. A curl-free poynting vector asymmetry of antenna, is required to maximize thrust and minimize radiation. The flux can't curl back into the source, because the thrust would cancel. This process can be controlled at fringe fields. It is possible to apply microwave techniques to cavity resonators.

A cavity can resonate in a different mode to produce specific field patterns in the cavity. It resonates the magnetic field, but doesn't radiate it. This involves parallel resonate circuits. With a hallow conductive cavity of a solid dielectric body, electromagnetic mass volume density can be controlled electrically to control inertia. This process generates cross-stressed, in-phase electric and magnetic fields for creating the needed poynting vector.

Lorentz forces in the charges bound in the loop are generated, and the field creates mechanical thrust. Materials of high dielectric permittivity and high magnetic permeability are used. Arrays are used to increase force densities for propulsion. A jellyfish uses a parcel of water to push against the water of the ocean, to propel itself through the ocean. Control over water volume in a cavity makes it possible. A cavity resonator alone might not produce enough power to create the needed poynting vector for thrust.